April 11, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Possible role of songbirds and parakeets in transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus to humans
Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Mar [date cited]. DOI: 10.3201/eid2003.131271
Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, Shanmuganatham K, Seiler P, Shu Y, et al.

Economic Burden of West Nile Virus in the United States
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014; vol. 90 no. 3: 389-390. [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 10]. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0009
Alan D. T. Barrett

Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.2014 Apr 5; vol. 369 no. 1639: [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 17]. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0491
P. C. Jepson et al.

Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(2): e89055. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089055
Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC

Long-term variation in influenza A virus prevalence and subtype diversity in migratory mallards in northern Europe
Proc. R. Soc. B 22 April 2014 vol. 281 no. 1781; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 26]. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0098
Neus Latorre-Margale et al.

Avian Diseases - March 2014
Volume 58, Issue 1

Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Mar;45(1):29-40.
Burco JD, Massey JG, Byrne BA, Tell L, Clemons KV, Ziccardi MH.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Vet Parasitol. 2014 Mar 24. pii: S0304-4017(14)00179-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Reboredo-Fernández A1, Gómez-Couso H2, Martínez-Cedeira JA3, Cacciò SM4, Ares-Mazás E1.

In vitro exposure of DE-71, a penta-PBDE mixture, on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and B6C3F1 mice
J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Apr 7. doi: 10.1002/jat.3008. [Epub ahead of print]
Wirth JR1, Peden-Adams MM, White ND, Bossart GD, Fair PA.

Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata)
Vet Pathol. 2013 Sep;50(5):914-20. doi: 10.1177/0300985813476060. Epub 2013 Feb 4.
Origgi FC1, Sattler U, Pilo P, Waldvogel AS.

Multi-level determinants of parasitic fly infection in forest passerines
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 10;8(7):e67104. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067104. Print 2013.
Manzoli DE et al. 

Using auxiliary information to improve wildlife disease surveillance when infected animals are not detected: a bayesian approach
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 27;9(3):e89843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089843. eCollection 2014.
Heisey DM et al.

Protection of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) against West Nile virus (WNV) infection after immunization with WNV recombinant envelope protein E (rE)
Vaccine. 2013 Sep 23;31(41):4523-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.07.071. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
Escribano-Romero E et al.

Highly dynamic animal contact network and implications on disease transmission
Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 4472. [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 26]. doi: 10.1038/srep04472
Shi Chen et al.

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e90925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090925
Walter WD, Smith R, Vanderklok M, VerCauteren K

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks
PLoS ONE 9(3): e90536. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090536
Barboza P, Vaillant L, Le Strat Y, Hartley DM, Nelson NP, et al.

March 27, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 24;7(1):117. [Epub ahead of print]
Mascarelli PE, Keel MK, Yabsley M, Last LA, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG.

North atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 19;9(3):e92075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092075. eCollection 2014.
Dusek RJ et al.

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China
Arch Virol. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Jiang L et al.

Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Mar 13. pii: S1567-1348(14)00084-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Girard YA et al.

An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Environ Int. 2014 Mar 11;67C:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Gómez-Ramírez P et al.

Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Feb 16. pii: S0378-1135(14)00091-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Janatova M et al.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 24]. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018
A. Reboredo-Fernández et al.

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91043. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091043
Jennelle CS et al.

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases
Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;14(2):160-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70244-5. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
Milinovich GJ et al.

March 20, 2014

Biologists Still Searching For Answers In Bald Eagle Deaths and other wildlife health news stories


Fish-Eating Ducks Hard Hit By Severe Winter, Ice

The Niagara River corridor from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario is renowned as a spectacular winter haven for hundreds of thousands of water birds. But this year's bitterly cold season has made it notable for something else: dead ducks.

Biologists say carcasses began piling up by the hundreds in early January after the plunging temperatures started icing over nearly the entire Great Lakes, preventing the ducks from getting to the minnows that are their main source of food. Necropsies on dozens of birds have confirmed the cause: starvation. "All have empty stomachs. They're half the weight they should be," said Connie Adams, a biologist in the state Department of Environmental Conservation's Buffalo office who has personally seen 950 dead birds.

"This is unprecedented. Biologists who've worked here for 35 years have never seen anything like this," she said. "We've seen a decline in tens of thousands in our weekly waterfowl counts." It's a phenomenon that has been seen elsewhere along the Great Lakes, with news reports of diving ducks and other waterfowl turning up dead by the hundreds along the southern part of Lake Michigan. They've also been found in Lake St. Clair between Lakes Erie and Huron.

... Necropsies and toxicity analyses showed many of the Michigan ducks were subsisting on invasive zebra mussels, which caused the birds to have potentially toxic levels of selenium in their bodies, Mason said. Zebra mussels filter toxins from the water and pass them up the food chain.

Most of the dead ducks seen in the upstate New York are red-breasted mergansers, which breed in northern Canada and Alaska and come south for the winter to the Great Lakes region. In most years, there are periods of freezing and thawing, providing enough breaks in the ice for them to dive for minnows.

Monroe News
15 Mar 2014
Location: Canada

Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins

...North American WNV outbreaks are often accompanied by high mortality in wild birds, a feature that is uncommon in Europe. The reason for this difference is unknown, but the intrinsic virulence of the viruses circulating in each continent and/or the susceptibility to the disease of Palearctic as opposed to Nearctic wild bird species could play a role.

To assess this question, experimental inoculations with four lineage 1 WNV strains, three from southern Europe (Italy/2008, Italy/2009 and Spain/2007) and one from North America (NY99) were performed on house sparrows (Passer domesticus), a wild passerine common in both continents. Non-significant differences which ranged from 0% to 25% were observed in mortality for the different WNV strains.

... Consequently, albeit being pathogenic for house sparrows, some Euro-Mediterranean strains had reduced capacity for replication in -and transmission from- this host, as compared to the NY99 strain. If applicable also to other wild bird host species, this relatively reduced transmission capacity of the Euro-Mediterranean strains could explain the lower incidence of this disease in wild birds in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

7th Space
19 Mar 2014

Cited Journal Article

Avian Botulism

Deer Health News
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

March 17, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Sampling strategies and biodiversity of influenza a subtypes in wild birds
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3):e90826. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090826. eCollection 2014.
Olson SH et al.

Presence of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Native Amphibians Exported from Madagascar
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 5;9(3):e89660. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089660. eCollection 2014.
Kolby JE.

Leukocyte response to eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus in a wild passerine bird
Avian Dis. 2013 Dec;57(4):744-9.
Owen J et al.

Echinococcosis in wild carnivorous species: epidemiology, genotypic diversity, and implications for veterinary public health
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 14]. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.009
David Carmena and Guillermo A. Cardona

Is there a relation between genetic or social groups of mallard ducks and the circulation of low pathogenic avian influenza viruses?
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 12]. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.03.001
Maria A. De Marco et al

A current review of avian influenza in pigeons and doves (Columbidae)
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 12]. doi:10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.042
Celia Abolnik

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia IVb Status in the United States: Inferences from Surveillance Activities and Regional Context
Preventive Veterinary Medicine. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 06]. doi:
L.L. Gustafson et al.

Seasonal reactivation enables Cyprinid herpesvirus 3 to persist in a wild host population
Fems Microbiology Ecology. 2014 Feb; 87 (2):536-542. doi:10.1111/1574-6941.12242
Uchii, K; Minamoto, T; Honjo, MN; Kawabata, Z

The importance of temporal heterothermy in bats
Journal of Zoology. 2014 Feb; 292 (2):86-100. doi:10.1111/jzo.12105
Authors: Stawski, C; Willis, CKR; Geiser, F

Organic contaminants in bats: Trends and new issues
Environment International. 2014 Feb; 63: 40-52. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2013.10.009
Authors: Bayat, S; Geiser, F; Kristiansen, P; Wilson, SC

March 12, 2014

Vermont bats begin white nose recovery and other wildlife health related news stories


Crisis biology: Can bacteria save bats and frogs from deadly diseases?

As populations plummet, biologists race for a solution.

In 2007, Valerie McKenzie volunteered for a large study of human body bacteria. It was the dawn of the golden age of the microbe. Researchers were just beginning to understand how bacteria and other microbes in human intestines influence everything from obesity to allergies and infections. McKenzie, a University of Colorado-Boulder biologist, was mildly curious about her "microbiome." But she was more interested in the bacteria living on the skin of frogs and toads.

Amphibian populations worldwide are plummeting, and entire species are going extinct. The West's struggling species include boreal toads and mountain yellow-legged frogs. Invasive species and habitat degradation play a major role, but amphibians are dying even in places with good habitat. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, an aggressive fungus commonly known as chytrid, is often to blame.

McKenzie, who was studying the role of farmland conversion and suburbanization in the decline of leopard frogs in Colorado, suspected chytrid was also a factor. When she read a paper about a strain of bacteria found on red-backed salamanders that inhibited chytrid's growth, she began to wonder: What microbes lived on the skin of her frogs and toads? And could any of them fight chytrid?

High Country News
26 Feb 2014
Emily Guerin

Other Frog Health News 

Infected Tasmanian devils reveal how cancer cells evolve in response to humans

Tasmanian Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD) has ravaged the world's largest carnivorous marsupial since it emerged in 1996, resulting in a population decline of over 90%. Conservation work to defeat the disease has including removing infected individuals from the population and new research explains how this gives us a unique opportunity to understand how human selection alters the evolution of cancerous cells.

DFTD is an asexually reproducing clonal cell line, which during the last 16 years has been exposed to negative effects as infected devils, approximately 33% of the population, have been removed from one site, the Forestier Peninsula, in Tasmania between 2006 and 2010.

Science Daily
18 Feb 2014

Cited Journal Article
Beata Ujvari, Anne-Maree Pearse, Kate Swift, Pamela Hodson, Bobby Hua, Stephen Pyecroft, Robyn Taylor, Rodrigo Hamede, Menna Jones, Katherine Belov, Thomas Madsen. Anthropogenic selection enhances cancer evolution in Tasmanian devil tumours. Evolutionary Applications, 2014; 7 (2): 260 DOI: 10.1111/eva.12117

Other Wildlife Health Related News
White-Nose Syndrome
One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

March 7, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

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A look at lead poisoning in bald eagles
Conservationist. 2014 Feb; Epub
Kevin Hynes
[Hey! Digest readers are the best! A fellow reader told us about this one.]

Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced 
Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity. 2014; PLoS ONE 9(1): e86437. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086437
Reynolds HT, Barton HA

Potential Intercontinental Movement of Influenza A(H7N9) Virus into North America by Wild Birds: Application of a Rapid Assessment Framework
Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 04]. DOI: 10.1111/tbed.12213
R. S. Miller, S. J. Sweeney, J. E. Akkina, E. K. Saito

First Evidence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Hong Kong Amphibian Trade
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e90750. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090750
Kolby JE, Smith KM, Berger L, Karesh WB, Preston A, et al.

Abiotic factors affecting persistence of avian influenza virus in surface water from waterfowl habitats
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014 Feb 28. [Epub ahead of print]
Keeler SP, Dalton MS, Cressler AM, Berghaus RD, Stallknecht D.

Experimental Infections of Wild Birds with West Nile Virus
Viruses. Feb 2014; 6(2): 752–781. [Epub ahead of print 13 Feb 2014]. doi: 10.3390/v6020752
Elisa Pérez-Ramírez, Francisco Llorente, and Miguel Ángel Jiménez-Clavero

Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis)
Zookeys. 2014 Feb 7;(378):83-101. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.378.6545. eCollection 2014.
Hopkins WA1, Moser WE2, Garst DW1, Richardson DJ3, Hammond CI3, Lazo-Wasem EA4.

Experimental infection of Eurasian collared-dove (Streptopelia decaocto) with West Nile virus
J Vector Ecol. 2013 Dec;38(2):210-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2013.12032.x.
Panella NA, Young G, Komar N.

International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Special Issue Epidemiology of West Nile Virus
One Health: The Human-Animal-Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases
The Concept and Examples of a One Health Approach
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Volume 365 2013
Editors: John S. Mackenzie, Martyn Jeggo, Peter Daszak, Juergen A. Richt
  • Wildlife: The Need to Better Understand the Linkages
    One Health: The Human-Animal-Environment Interfaces in Emerging Infectious Diseases
    Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology Volume 365, 2013, pp 101-125
    Melinda K. Rostal, Kevin J. Olival, Elizabeth H. Loh, William B. Karesh
Novel Bartonella Infection in Northern and Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris kenyoni and Enhydra lutris nereis)
Veterinary Microbiology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 24]
Sebastian E. Carrasco et al.

Francisella tularensis infection without lesions in gray tree squirrels (Sciurus griseus)
A diagnostic challenge

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2014 [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 20]. doi:10.1177/1040638713520541
Danielle D. Nelson et al.

The Role of the Toxicologic Pathologist in Academia [Commentary]
Veterinary Pathology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 19]. doi: 10.1177/0300985813519652
P. V. Turner et al.

Avian Pathology - January 2014
Volume 43, Issue 1

March 5, 2014

Necropsies on beached striped dolphins leave more questions than answers and other wildlife health related news stories


Partnership fights for ban on hunting with lead ammo

California bill A.B. 711 requires the use of non-lead ammunition in all hunting of mammals, birds, and other wildlife. Audubon California, The Humane Society of the United Sates, and Defenders of Wildlife joined forces to get the bill passed.

“Our three organizations worked together on a 2008 bill that limited use of lead ammunition in about 20% of California,” says Jennifer Fearing, California senior state director of The Humane Society of the United States. “A.B. 711 would extend this requirement to the rest of the state.”

Garrison Frost, director of marketing and communications for Audubon California, says lead poisoning is a leading cause of death among wildlife that feeds on animals killed by lead ammunition. In addition, lead ammunition that seeps into the food chain, watershed, and overall environment poses a broader treat to human health.

PR Week
21 Feb 2014
Tanya Lewis


The black-footed ferret is one of the most endangered mammals in North America, but new research suggests that these charismatic critters can persist if conservationists think big enough.

Decades of human persecution (e.g., poisoning) of the ferret’s favorite prey, prairie dogs, and severe outbreaks of plague and distemper led to its extinction in the wild in 1987.

Since then, thousands of captive-raised ferrets have been released across North America, and at least four wild populations have been successfully reestablished.

However, a new factor threatens to undermine these hard-fought conservation gains: the continued eastward spread of the exotic bacterial disease plague, which is a quick and efficient killer of prairie dogs, and is caused by the same microbe that is implicated in the Black Death pandemics of the Middle Ages.

Using a new multi-species computer modeling approach, researchers have linked models of plague, prairie dogs, and black-footed ferrets to explore the consequences of ecological interactions in ways not possible using standard methods.
The results of this study, published in Journal of Applied Ecology, suggest that the continued survival of black-footed ferret populations requires landscapes larger than conservationists previously thought, and intensive management actions to reduce plague transmission.

21 Feb 2014

One Health News Corner
Huh?! That's Interesting!

February 27, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

New alphacoronavirus in Mystacina tuberculata bats, New Zealand
Emerg Infect Dis. 2014 Apr; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2004.131441
Hall RJ, Wang J, Peacey M, Moore NE, McInnes K, Tompkins DM.
[Thank your fellow Digest reader for sharing!]

Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2014 May; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.3201/eid2005.131707
B. Zhao et al.

Mercury Exposure Associated with Altered Plasma Thyroid Hormones in the Declining Western Pond Turtle (Emys marmorata) from California Mountain Streams
Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Feb 21. [Epub ahead of print]
Meyer E1, Eagles-Smith CA, Sparling D, Blumenshine S.

Survey of antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in the southeastern USA
Dis Aquat Organ. 2014 Feb 19;108(2):91-102. doi: 10.3354/dao02705.
Stewart JR et al.

Potential impact of antimicrobial resistance in wildlife, environment and human health
Front Microbiol. 2014 Feb 5;5:23. eCollection 2014.
Radhouani H et al.

Polar Bear Encephalitis: Establishment of a Comprehensive Next-generation Pathogen Analysis Pipeline for Captive and Free-living Wildlife
J Comp Pathol. 2013 Dec 19. pii: S0021-9975(13)00385-X. doi: 10.1016/j.jcpa.2013.12.005. [Epub ahead of print]
Szentiks CA et al.

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - December 2013

Neglected wild life: Parasitic biodiversity as a conservation target
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Aug 2;2:222-227. eCollection 2013.
Gómez A and Nichols E

Haemogregarine infections of three species of aquatic freshwater turtles from two sites in Costa Rica
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:131-5. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.003. eCollection 2013.
Rossow JA et al.

Wildlife disease ecology in changing landscapes: Mesopredator release and toxoplasmosis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Mar 5;2:110-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.02.002. eCollection 2013
Hollings T et al.

Parasites and the conservation of small populations: The case of Baylisascaris procyonis
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec; 2: 203–210
L. Kristen et al

Predictors of malaria infection in a wild bird population: Landscape level analyses reveal climatic and anthropogenic factors
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Feb 16. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12214. [Epub ahead of print]
Gonzalez-Quevedo C et al.

Lectins stain cells differentially in the coral, Montipora capitata
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Feb 8. pii: S0022-2011(14)00017-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.01.008. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM and Farah Y.

Veterinary Pathology - March 2014
Special Issue: Infectious Diseases of Domestic Animals
Volume 51, Number 2

Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation - January 2014
Volume 26, Number 1

Emerging Infectious Diseases - March 2014
Volume 20, Number 3

February 25, 2014

Honeybee trade is hotbed for carrying disease into wild and other wildlife health news stories

Top Stories

Study reveals new ways deadly squirrelpox is transmitted to red squirrels

Native red squirrels have declined throughout Britain and Ireland for the last century due to a combination of habitat loss and the introduction of the North American eastern grey squirrel. But more recently its few remaining populations have been devastated by an insidious pox virus passed to them by the alien invaders.

A study by the biodiversity and conservation research centre Quercus at Queen's University Belfast (QUB), and published in the journal PLOS ONE, found the situation may be worse than previously thought as the disease appears to have multiple modes of potential transmission. The project was part-funded by the Northern Ireland Environment Agency (NIEA) through the Natural Heritage Research Partnership (NHRP) with Quercus, Queen's University Belfast and part-funded by the People's Trust for Endangered Species (PTES).

Invading grey squirrels, which harbour the disease but typically do not suffer symptoms, may pass the virus in their urine. The research team conducted experiments to examine the survival of the virus outside the body in the wider environment, showing that it persists best in warm dry conditions. This raises the possibility that infected grey squirrels could pass on the disease by uninfected squirrels coming into contact with their dried urine during spring and summer.

The virus was also found in the parasites of pox positive squirrels including fleas, mites and ticks, which are capable of carrying the disease between individuals or between the species.

24 Feb 2014

Honeybee trade is hotbed for carrying disease into wild

HONEYBEES have been busy – spreading diseases to insects that pollinate crops. It seems imported honeybees are an important reservoir for viruses that kill wild pollinators, which could lead to a meltdown in the planet's pollination services.

World trade in honeybee colonies contributes to honey production and also plays a vital role in agriculture – in some cases there would be no crop without the pollinators.

Honeybee colonies in Europe and North America have suffered recent mysterious declines. But now it seems the colonies could be just as much of a threat to wild pollinators such as bumblebees and the many species of "solitary" bees.

Matthias Fürst of Royal Holloway, University of London tracked the geographical prevalence in the UK of a non-native parasite called deformed wing virus (DWV) that is often found in both honeybees and bumblebees. The virus is spread by a mite and typically kills bees within 48 hours. The pattern of spread showed that imported honeybees are the major source of infection for the wild pollinators, and that emerging diseases spread by those colonies could be a major cause of mortality in the wild

New Scientist
19 February 2014
Fred Pearce

Cited Journal Article

Coral off WA suffers shocking damage from marine heatwaves, scientists say

Study reveals that remote reef with coral hundreds of years old has undergone severe bleaching and ‘decimation’

Marine heatwaves have wreaked “almost unprecedented” damage to ancient coral off Western Australia’s Pilbara coast, scientists say.

Preliminary results from a five-year year study of the coastline revealed that a remote section of reef south of Barrow Island has suffered severe “bleaching and decimation”, according to the CSIRO, which is running the study with the University of Western Australia.

An extreme “bleaching event” in 2011 was known to have caused significant damage to the reef. But the study found another marine heatwave, in the summer of 2012-13, also caused trauma to the reef, including to its massive, 400-year old porites corals.

The Guardian
13 Feb 2013
Michael Safi
Location: Western Australia

Other Wildlife Health Related News
Chronic Wasting Disease
One Health News Corner
It Ain't All Bad

February 19, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Lead in Ammunition: A Persistent Threat to Health and Conservation
EcoHealth. 2014; [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1007/s10393-013-0896-5
C. K. Johnson, T. R. Kelly, B. A. Rideout
[Courtesy of a fellow Digest reader!]

River otters as biomonitors for organochlorine pesticides, PCBs, and PBDEs in Illinois
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 2014 Feb; 100: 99–104
Samantha K Carpenter et al.
[Another great article shared by a member. Digest readers are the best!]

A case of chronic wasting disease in a captive red deer (Cervus elaphus)
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2013 Sep; 25(5):573-576. doi:10.1177/1040638713499914
Marc D. Schwabenlander et al.

A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea
Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2013 Nov; 25(6): 750-755. doi:10.1177/1040638713504755
Wi-Sik Kim et al.

Influenza A virus infections in marine mammals and terrestrial carnivores
Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2013 Nov-Dec;126(11-12):500-8.
Harder TC et al.

Disease and Predation: Sorting out Causes of a Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis) Decline
PLoS One. 2014 Feb 7;9(2):e88271. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088271. eCollection 2014.
Smith JB et al.

Network Analysis of Translocated Takahe Populations to Identify Disease Surveillance Targets
Conserv Biol. 2014 Feb 11. doi: 10.1111/cobi.12178. [Epub ahead of print]
Grange ZL, VAN Andel M, French NP, Gartrell BD.

Perfluorinated compounds: emerging POPs with potential immunotoxicity
Toxicol Lett. 2014 Feb 3. pii: S0378-4274(14)00058-7. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.01.038. [Epub ahead of print]
Corsini E et al.

Frequent and seasonally variable sublethal anthrax infections are accompanied by short-lived immunity in an endemic system
J Anim Ecol. 2014 Feb 5. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12207. [Epub ahead of print]
Cizauskas CA, Bellan SE, Turner WC, Vance RE, Getz WM.

Do-or-die life cycles and diverse post-infection resistance mechanisms limit the evolution of parasite host ranges
Ecology Letters. 2013; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 04]. DOI:10.1111/ele.12249
Michael Sieber and Ivana Gudelj

A need for One Health approach - lessons learned from outbreaks of Rift Valley fever in Saudi Arabia and Sudan
Infection Ecology and Epidemiology. 2014; 4: 20710. doi: 10.3402/iee.v4.20710
Osama Ahmed Hassan, Clas Ahlm, Magnus Evander

Monitoring diseases in garden wildlife [No online abstract]
Vet Rec. 2014 Feb 1;174(5):126. doi: 10.1136/vr.g1295.
Cunningham AA, Lawson B, Hopkins T, Toms M, Wormald K, Peck K.

Community change and evidence for variable warm-water temperature adaptation of corals in Northern Male Atoll, Maldives
Mar Pollut Bull. 2014 Jan 30. pii: S0025-326X(14)00036-8. doi: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.01.035. [Epub ahead of print]
McClanahan TR and Muthiga NA

Identifying future zoonotic disease threats: Where are the gaps in our understanding of primate infectious diseases?
Evol Med Public Health. 2013 Jan;2013(1):27-36. doi: 10.1093/emph/eot001. Epub 2013 Jan 22.
Cooper N and Nunn CL.