July 2, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here.

Wild bird surveillance for avian influenza virus
Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1161:69-81. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-0758-8_7
Brown JD, Poulson R, Stallknecht DE.

Perpetuation and reassortment of gull influenza A viruses in Atlantic North America
Virology. 2014 May;456-457:353-63. doi: 10.1016/j.virol.2014.04.009. Epub 2014 Apr 28.
Huang Y et al.

Viral metagenomic analysis of feces of wild small carnivores
Virol J. 2014 May 15;11(1):89. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-89.
Bodewes R et al.

Association of a lukM-positive clone of Staphylococcus aureus with fatal exudative dermatitis in red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):987-91. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.025. Epub 2012 Nov 2.
Simpson VR et al.

Temporal patterns in immunity, infection load and disease susceptibility: understanding the drivers of host responses in the amphibian-chytrid fungus system
Functional Ecology. 2014 Jun; 28(3): 569–578. doi: 10.1111/1365-2435.12194
Stephanie S. Gervasi et al.

The EMPRES-i genetic module: a novel tool linking epidemiological outbreak information and genetic characteristics of influenza viruses
Database. 2014; bau008 doi: 10.1093/database/bau008
Filip Claes et al.

Monitoring Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions in the Information Age: How Smartphones Can Improve Data Collection
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(6): e98613. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098613
Olson DD, Bissonette JA, Cramer PC, Green AD, Davis ST, et al.

Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan
Tamukai K, Une Y, Tominaga A, Suzuki K, Goka K (2014)
Dis Aquat Org 109:165-175

First evidence of hemoplasma infection in free-ranging Namibian cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus)
Vet Microbiol. 2013 Mar 23;162(2-4):972-6. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2012.10.009. Epub 2012 Oct 16.
Krengel A et al.

Fish pathogens near the Arctic Circle: molecular, morphological and ecological evidence for unexpected diversity of Diplostomum (Digenea: Diplostomidae) in Iceland
Int J Parasitol. 2014 Jun 11. pii: S0020-7519(14)00122-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2014.04.009. [Epub ahead of print]
Blasco-Costa I et al.

Gross and microscopic pathology of hard and soft corals in New Caledonia
J Invertebr Pathol. 2014 Jun 10. pii: S0022-2011(14)00082-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jip.2014.05.007. [Epub ahead of print]
Work TM et al.

Extreme Heterogeneity in Parasitism Despite Low Population Genetic Structure among Monarch Butterflies Inhabiting the Hawaiian Islands
PLoS One. 2014 Jun 13;9(6):e100061. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0100061. eCollection 2014.
Pierce AA1, de Roode JC1, Altizer S2, Bartel RA3.

Demographic consequences of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants in a vulnerable long-lived bird, the wandering albatross
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 22;281(1787). pii: 20133313. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.3313. Epub 2014 Jun 11.
Goutte A et al.

Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)
Int J Parasitol Parasites Wildl. 2013 Dec 28;3(1):32-40. doi: 10.1016/j.ijppaw.2013.12.002. eCollection 2014.
Girard YA et al.

Diffusion of influenza viruses among migratory birds with a focus on the Southwest United States
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Jun 6. pii: S1567-1348(14)00198-1. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.05.029. [Epub ahead of print]
Scotch M et al.

Evidence That Bank Vole PrP Is a Universal Acceptor for Prions 
PLoS Pathog 10(4): e1003990. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1003990
Watts JC, Giles K, Patel S, Oehler A, DeArmond SJ, et al. (2014)

Disease of Aquatic Organisms - May 2014
Vol. 109, No. 2

International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - August 2014
Volume 3, Issue 2

July 1, 2014

Disease Likely Explanation For Mysterious Bird Deaths and other wildlife health news


First diseased bat identified in Columbia area

A disease that is killing millions of bug-eating bats has shown up for the first time in Richland County, indicating the disorder could have broader impacts on the winged mammals than previously known.

Recent laboratory tests confirmed white-nose syndrome in a bat from a site in the Columbia-area, according to the S.C. Department of Natural Resources.

The discovery is significant because it indicates the possible spread of the disease away from the mountains and into other parts of South Carolina. That’s a concern, not only as a threat to the species itself, but because bats are natural exterminators.

The State
30 Jun 2014
S Fretwell

More White-Nose Syndrome News

Scientists Close In On What’s Killing Sea Stars

Some scientists see a connection between rising water temperatures and the wasting syndrome. The waters around the San Juan Islands tend to be colder than the Washington outer coastline where dying starfish were first reported last summer. Since the arrival of warmer weather this season, the syndrome has spread rapidly to areas like the San Juan Islands that were previously untouched by the syndrome. Recent reports have also surfaced of die-offs along Oregon's coastline.

“The period of time in which the disease progressed rapidly has been a period in which waters have been warmer than usual winter conditions," Blanchette said.

While scientists are reluctant to assign blame to climate change, Harvell explained that as oceans warm, outbreaks like this are more likely to occur.

"A warmer world would be a sicker world," Harvell said. "Under warming conditions a lot of microorganisms do better. They grow faster. They replicate faster. Many of our hosts can actually be stressed by warm conditions. And so it kind of creates a perfect storm of sickness."

Jefferson Public Radio
16 Jun 2014

Disease Likely Explanation For Mysterious Bird Deaths

The sudden and inexplicable deaths of dozens of birds is probably linked to a disease, says an Icelandic ornithologist.

“Everything points to a disease or some other contagion at work when many adult birds die within a short period of time,” said Gunnar Þór Hallgrímsson, an ornithologist and the director of the Southwest Iceland Nature Research Institute, to Vísir.

Gunnar points out that in other countries, mass bird deaths are more common, and are usually the result of the bacteria Clostridium botulinum, better known as the organism which causes botulism.

Reykjavik Grapevine
17 Jun 2014
P Fontaine


Fish Die-off News

Hey! It Ain't All Bad News

June 10, 2014

Killer ranavirus threatens frogs, turtles in Delaware and more wildlife health news


Scientists still puzzled over cause of elk hoof disease

Scientists researching the cause of elk hoof disease in Southwest Washington have more questions than answers about the condition that causes the animals to limp in pain.... At meetings and in publications, WDFW has indicated that researchers believe the disease is caused by the treponeme bacteria, which has been linked to hoof disease in cows and sheep in many parts of the world.

The Longview Daily News
07 Jun 2014
T Paulu

Parasites fail to halt European bumblebee invasion of the UK

A species of bee from Europe that has stronger resistance to parasite infections than native bumblebees has spread across the UK, according to new research. The study shows that tree bumblebees have rapidly spread despite them carrying high levels of an infection that normally prevents queen bees from producing colonies. The species arrived in the UK from continental Europe 13 years ago and has successfully spread at an average rate of nearly 4,500 square miles -- about half the size of Wales -- every year.

Science Daily
03 Jun 2014

Cited Journal Article
Catherine M. Jones, Mark J. F. Brown. Parasites and genetic diversity in an invasive bumblebee. Journal of Animal Ecology, 2014; DOI: 10.1111/1365-2656.12235

Killer ranavirus threatens frogs, turtles in Delaware

A virus partially blamed for a worldwide amphibian decline has made its way to Delaware and the region, killing tadpoles and raising fears it will spread to reptile species.

The ranavirus, a type of virus that affects cold-blooded species, has been found in wood frog tadpoles in all of Delaware's counties and eight in Maryland. And there is concern it could impact iconic reptile species like the Eastern box turtle or endangered species like the bog turtle.

USA Today
02 Jun 2014
M Murray

Chronic Wasting Disease
Fish Die-Offs

June 5, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here.

J Wildl Dis. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Stephen C.

White-nose syndrome fungus: a generalist pathogen of hibernating bats
PLoS One. 2014 May 12;9(5):e97224. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097224. eCollection 2014.
Zukal J et al.

Surveillance for emerging biodiversity diseases of wildlife
PLoS Pathog. 2014 May 29;10(5):e1004015. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004015. eCollection 2014.
Grogan LF et al.

Ticks of the Hyalomma marginatum complex transported by migratory birds into Central Europe
Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2014 Apr 29. pii: S1877-959X(14)00061-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Capek M et al.

Identification and characterization of Highlands J virus from a Mississippi sandhill crane using unbiased next-generation sequencing
J Virol Methods. 2014 May 29. pii: S0166-0934(14)00210-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.05.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Ip HS et al.

A 5-year Chlamydia vaccination programme could reverse disease-related koala population decline: Predictions from a mathematical model using field data

Vaccine. 2014 May 27. pii: S0264-410X(14)00725-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2014.05.049. [Epub ahead of print]
Craig AP et al.

Wetland characteristics influence disease risk for a threatened amphibian
Ecological Applications. 2014; 24:650–662. doi: 10.1890/13-0389.1
Geoffrey W. Heard et al.

Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Infectious Diseases: A Review of the Evidence
Ecohealth. 2014 May 23. [Epub ahead of print]
Gottdenker NL et al.

The effect of seasonal birth pulses on pathogen persistence in wild mammal populations
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 Jul 7;281(1786). pii: 20132962. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2962.
Peel AJ et al.

The potential impact of native Australian trypanosome infections on the health of koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus)
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):873-83. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000369. Epub 2011 Apr 27.
McInnes LM et al.

Prevalence, diversity, and interaction patterns of avian haemosporidians in a four-year study of blackcaps in a migratory divide
Parasitology. 2011 Jun;138(7):824-35. doi: 10.1017/S0031182011000515. Epub 2011 Apr 26.
Santiago-Alarcon D et al.

A novel siadenovirus detected in the kidneys and liver of Gouldian finches (Erythura gouldiae)
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Apr 21. pii: S0378-1135(14)00206-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.04.006. [Epub ahead of print]
Joseph HM et al.

Assessing host extinction risk following exposure to Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis
Proc Biol Sci. 2014 May 7;281(1785):20132783. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2013.2783. Print 2014.
Louca S et al.

Antimicrobial resistant bacteria in wild mammals and birds: a coincidence or cause for concern?
Ir Vet J. 2014 Apr 25;67(1):8. doi: 10.1186/2046-0481-67-8. eCollection 2014.
Smith S et al.

Career Attitudes of First-Year Veterinary Students Before and After a Required Course on Veterinary Careers
J Vet Med Educ. 2014 May 2:1-10. [Epub ahead of print]
Fish RE and Griffith EH.

June 3, 2014

Glow-in-the-dark tool lets scientists find diseased bats and other wildlife health news


Glow-in-the-dark tool lets scientists find diseased bats

Scientists working to understand the devastating bat disease known as white-nose syndrome now have a new, non-lethal tool to identify bats with WNS lesions -- ultraviolet, or UV, light. Millions of bats have died from this rapidly spreading disease and this new method allows for accurate detection of the disease without killing any more bats.

Science Daily
29 May 2014

Cited Journal Article
Gregory G. Turner, et al. Nonlethal Screening of Bat-Wing Skin With the Use of Ultraviolet Fluorescence to Detect Lesions Indicative of White-Nose Syndrome. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 2014; 140522114529005 DOI: 10.7589/2014-03-058

Other White-Nose Syndrome News

To Michigan's animal pathologist, solving wildlife deaths is 'a fun job'

... But while most wildlife enthusiasts would prefer to handle living animals, Cooley has spent the past 35 years up to his elbows in the carcasses of dead deer, waterfowl or other creatures that have met their demise from unknown circumstances. As the Michigan Department of Natural Resources’ animal pathologist, Cooley’s job is to solve the mysteries of wildlife death.

... The animals that end up in Cooley’s necropsy lab at Michigan State University come from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, USDA Wildlife Services and the public. Sometimes, the cause of death is obvious. For example, an animal found on the side of the road with broken bones and bruises would likely have been hit by a car.

Other times, the answer is not as straightforward.

“You never know what you’re getting into,” said Julie Melotti, Cooley’s lab technician of seven years. “But sometimes you assume something is roadkill and it turns out to be something completely different.”

Cooley and his staff of two veterinarians, two lab scientists and two technicians are responsible for investigating and reporting trends in animal health throughout the state. Their role is to predict the next epidemic and make suggestions for preventing it, if possible.

“Wildlife health and human health, you can’t separate them. They are intertwined,” Cooley said. “The way people can travel and animals can travel, you can have a disease on the other side of the world and all of a sudden you find it in Michigan.”

Detroit News
01 Jun 2014

Genome Sequences Reveal How Lemurs Fight Infection

New technique could aid conservation, disease surveillance

The young lemur named Eugenius started to get sick. Very sick. He was lethargic, losing weight and suffering from diarrhea. Duke Lemur Center veterinarians soon pinpointed the cause of his illness: Eugenius tested positive for Cryptosporidium, a microscopic intestinal parasite known to affect people, pets, livestock and wildlife worldwide.

In humans, thousands of cases of Cryptosporidium are reported in the United States each year, spread primarily through contaminated water.

Since Eugenius was the first animal diagnosed in 1999, the parasite has caused periodic diarrhea outbreaks at the Duke Lemur Center. All of the infected animals are sifakas — the only lemur species out of 17 at the center known to fall prey to the parasite — and most of them were under age five when they got sick.

Despite various efforts to stop the infection, such as quarantining infected lemurs and decontaminating their enclosures, more than half of the sifakas living at the center have tested positive for crypto at some point. While most animals recover, the pattern has veterinarians puzzled over why the outbreaks persist.

Now, thanks to advances in next-generation sequencing technology, researchers are getting closer to understanding how these endangered animals fight the infection and detecting the illness early enough to minimize its spread.

Red Orbit
01 Jun 2014

Cited Journal Article
P. A. Larsen et al. Next-generation approaches to advancing eco-immunogenomic research in critically endangered primates. Molecular Ecology Resources. Ahead of print 29 May 2014. doi: 10.1111/1755-0998.12274


June 2, 2014

Flame Retardant Chemicals Weaken Frogs' Immune Systems and other wildlife health related news


Avian flu hits penguins in Antarctica. Scientists wonder how virus reached the icy region

Antarctica may be too cold and remote but this has not, apparently, helped prevent pigeons living in the icy region to contract avian flu, which is basically transmitted when birds get in contact with infected animals or contaminated secretions and surfaces.

In a study published in the journal of American Society for Microbiology mBio May 6, a group of international scientists described a new strain of avian flu that they discovered in the Antarctic after conducting tests on Adélie penguins.

Tech Times; 05 May 2014

Cited Journal Article
Hurt AC, et al.  2014. Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza A viruses in Antarctica. mBio 5(3):e01098-14. doi:10.1128/mBio.01098-14.

Investigation into walrus disease closes with no cause identified

An investigation into a mysterious disease afflicting Pacific walruses has been closed with no culprit identified, federal agencies said on Monday.

The investigation into what scientists call an "unusual mortality event" -- an unexpected die-off of a large numbers of animals -- was launched in 2011 when seals and walruses began showing up with bleeding skin lesions, labored breathing, lethargy and hair loss.

Anchorage Daily News;15 May 2014

Flame Retardant Chemicals Weaken Frogs' Immune Systems

Young frogs exposed to flame retardants have weakened immune systems, which could leave them more susceptible to diseases that are ravaging amphibians worldwide.

A new laboratory experiment is the first to link flame retardants to immune system problems in frogs, and adds to evidence that pollutants may contribute to global declines of their populations.

Scientific American; 13 May 2014

Cited Journal Article
Tawnya L. Cary et al. Immunomodulation in Post-metamorphic Northern Leopard Frogs, Lithobates pipiens, Following Larval Exposure to Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether. Environ. Sci. Technol., 2014, 48 (10), pp 5910–5919. DOI: 10.1021/es405776m

Other Amphibian Health Related News


May 15, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here.

Demographic Processes Drive Increases in Wildlife Disease following Population Reduction
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(5): e86563. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0086563
Prentice JC, Marion G, White PCL, Davidson RS, Hutchings MR

Role of wildlife in the epidemiology of Leishmania infantum infection in Europe
Parasitology Research. 2014 May; [Epub]. doi: 10.1007/s00436-014-3929-2
Javier Millán et al.
[Courtesy of your fellow Digest reader for sharing this article.]

Avian Influenza Virus Antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)
J Wildl Dis. 2014 May 7. [Epub ahead of print]
Johnson JA1, Decicco LH, Ruthrauff DR, Krauss S, Hall JS.
[Other articles ahead of print]

High Genetic Diversity and Adaptive Potential of Two Simian Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in a Wild Primate Population
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e90714. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090714
Bailey AL, Lauck M, Weiler A, Sibley SD, Dinis JM, et al.

Decline and re-expansion of an amphibian with high prevalence of chytrid fungus
Biological Conservation Volume 170, February 2014, Pages 86–91. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.12.034
Ben C. Scheele et al.

A simple and efficient method for detecting avian influenza virus in water samples
Journal of Virological Methods. 2014 Apr; 199:124–128. doi:10.1016/j.jviromet.2014.01.013
Hongbo Zhang et al.

Surveillance of Avian Paramyxovirus in Migratory Waterfowls in the San-in Region of Western Japan from 2006 to 2012
Journal of Veterinary Medical Science. 2014 Mar; 76(3):423-430. doi:10.1292/jvms.13-0539
Dennis V. Umali et al.

Use of Wild Bird Surveillance, Human Case Data and GIS Spatial Analysis for Predicting Spatial Distributions of West Nile Virus in Greece
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5): e96935. [Epub 2014 May 07]. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0096935
George Valiakos et al.

Using Avian Surveillance in Ecuador to Assess the Imminence of West Nile Virus Incursion to Galápagos
Ecohealth. 2014 May 6. [Epub ahead of print]. doi:10.1007/s10393-014-0911-5
Eastwood G, Goodman SJ, Hilgert N, Cruz M, Kramer LD, Cunningham AA.

Emerging Infectious Diseases in Free-Ranging Wildlife–Australian Zoo Based Wildlife Hospitals Contribute to National Surveillance
PLoS One. 2014; 9(5): e95127 [Epub 2014 May 01]. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095127
Keren Cox-Witton et al.

Chronic Wasting Disease Agents in Nonhuman Primates
Emerg Infect Dis. May 2014; 20(5): 833–837. doi: 10.3201/eid2005.130778
Brent Race et al.

Avian Influenza Surveillance in the Danube Delta Using Sentinel Geese and Ducks
Influenza Res Treat. 2014; 2014: 965749 [Epub 2014 Mar 25]. doi: 10.1155/2014/965749
Alexandru Coman et al.

Journal of Wildlife Diseases - April 2014
Volume 50, Issue 2

Novel Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in Tree Sparrow, Shanghai, China, 2013
Emerg Infect Dis. May 2014; 20(5): 850–853. doi: 10.3201/eid2005.131707
Baihui Zhao et al.

Detection of evolutionarily distinct avian influenza a viruses in antarctica
MBio. 2014 May 6;5(3). pii: e01098-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01098-14.
Hurt AC et al.

Phylogenetic and antigenic characterization of reassortant H9N2 avian influenza viruses isolated from wild waterfowl in the East Dongting Lake wetland in 2011–2012
Virol J. 2014; 11: 77. [Epub online 2014 Apr 30]. doi: 10.1186/1743-422X-11-77
Yun Zhu et al.

April 11, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Possible role of songbirds and parakeets in transmission of influenza A(H7N9) virus to humans
Emerg Infect Dis [Internet]. 2014 Mar [date cited]. DOI: 10.3201/eid2003.131271
Jones JC, Sonnberg S, Koçer ZA, Shanmuganatham K, Seiler P, Shu Y, et al.

Economic Burden of West Nile Virus in the United States
Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014; vol. 90 no. 3: 389-390. [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 10]. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.14-0009
Alan D. T. Barrett

Measuring pesticide ecological and health risks in West African agriculture to establish an enabling environment for sustainable intensification
Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.2014 Apr 5; vol. 369 no. 1639: [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 17]. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2013.0491
P. C. Jepson et al.

Reverse Zoonotic Disease Transmission (Zooanthroponosis): A Systematic Review of Seldom-Documented Human Biological Threats to Animals
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(2): e89055. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089055
Messenger AM, Barnes AN, Gray GC

Long-term variation in influenza A virus prevalence and subtype diversity in migratory mallards in northern Europe
Proc. R. Soc. B 22 April 2014 vol. 281 no. 1781; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Feb 26]. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0098
Neus Latorre-Margale et al.

Avian Diseases - March 2014
Volume 58, Issue 1

Monitoring of fungal loads in seabird rehabilitation centers with comparisons to natural seabird environments in northern California
J Zoo Wildl Med. 2014 Mar;45(1):29-40.
Burco JD, Massey JG, Byrne BA, Tell L, Clemons KV, Ziccardi MH.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Vet Parasitol. 2014 Mar 24. pii: S0304-4017(14)00179-4. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018. [Epub ahead of print]
Reboredo-Fernández A1, Gómez-Couso H2, Martínez-Cedeira JA3, Cacciò SM4, Ares-Mazás E1.

In vitro exposure of DE-71, a penta-PBDE mixture, on immune endpoints in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and B6C3F1 mice
J Appl Toxicol. 2014 Apr 7. doi: 10.1002/jat.3008. [Epub ahead of print]
Wirth JR1, Peden-Adams MM, White ND, Bossart GD, Fair PA.

Fatal combined infection with canine distemper virus and orthopoxvirus in a group of Asian marmots (Marmota caudata)
Vet Pathol. 2013 Sep;50(5):914-20. doi: 10.1177/0300985813476060. Epub 2013 Feb 4.
Origgi FC1, Sattler U, Pilo P, Waldvogel AS.

Multi-level determinants of parasitic fly infection in forest passerines
PLoS One. 2013 Jul 10;8(7):e67104. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067104. Print 2013.
Manzoli DE et al. 

Using auxiliary information to improve wildlife disease surveillance when infected animals are not detected: a bayesian approach
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 27;9(3):e89843. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089843. eCollection 2014.
Heisey DM et al.

Protection of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) against West Nile virus (WNV) infection after immunization with WNV recombinant envelope protein E (rE)
Vaccine. 2013 Sep 23;31(41):4523-7. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.07.071. Epub 2013 Aug 6.
Escribano-Romero E et al.

Highly dynamic animal contact network and implications on disease transmission
Sci Rep. 2014; 4: 4472. [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 26]. doi: 10.1038/srep04472
Shi Chen et al.

Linking Bovine Tuberculosis on Cattle Farms to White-Tailed Deer and Environmental Variables Using Bayesian Hierarchical Analysis
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e90925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090925
Walter WD, Smith R, Vanderklok M, VerCauteren K

Factors Influencing Performance of Internet-Based Biosurveillance Systems Used in Epidemic Intelligence for Early Detection of Infectious Diseases Outbreaks
PLoS ONE 9(3): e90536. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0090536
Barboza P, Vaillant L, Le Strat Y, Hartley DM, Nelson NP, et al.

March 27, 2014

Wildlife Disease Journal Digest

Browse complete Digest publication library here

Hemotropic mycoplasmas in little brown bats (Myotis lucifugus)
Parasit Vectors. 2014 Mar 24;7(1):117. [Epub ahead of print]
Mascarelli PE, Keel MK, Yabsley M, Last LA, Breitschwerdt EB, Maggi RG.

North atlantic migratory bird flyways provide routes for intercontinental movement of avian influenza viruses
PLoS One. 2014 Mar 19;9(3):e92075. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0092075. eCollection 2014.
Dusek RJ et al.

First isolation of reticuloendotheliosis virus from mallards in China
Arch Virol. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]
Jiang L et al.

Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population
Infect Genet Evol. 2014 Mar 13. pii: S1567-1348(14)00084-7. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.002. [Epub ahead of print]
Girard YA et al.

An overview of existing raptor contaminant monitoring activities in Europe
Environ Int. 2014 Mar 11;67C:12-21. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2014.02.004. [Epub ahead of print]
Gómez-Ramírez P et al.

Antimicrobial-resistant Enterobacteriaceae from humans and wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Area, Central African Republic
Vet Microbiol. 2014 Feb 16. pii: S0378-1135(14)00091-1. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.02.014. [Epub ahead of print]
Janatova M et al.

Detection and molecular characterization of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) stranded along the Galician coast (Northwest Spain)
Veterinary Parasitology. 2014; [Epub ahead of print 2014 Mar 24]. doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.03.018
A. Reboredo-Fernández et al.

Transmission of Chronic Wasting Disease in Wisconsin White-Tailed Deer: Implications for Disease Spread and Management
PLoS ONE. 2014; 9(3): e91043. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0091043
Jennelle CS et al.

Internet-based surveillance systems for monitoring emerging infectious diseases
Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Feb;14(2):160-8. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70244-5. Epub 2013 Nov 28.
Milinovich GJ et al.

March 20, 2014

Biologists Still Searching For Answers In Bald Eagle Deaths and other wildlife health news stories


Fish-Eating Ducks Hard Hit By Severe Winter, Ice

The Niagara River corridor from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario is renowned as a spectacular winter haven for hundreds of thousands of water birds. But this year's bitterly cold season has made it notable for something else: dead ducks.

Biologists say carcasses began piling up by the hundreds in early January after the plunging temperatures started icing over nearly the entire Great Lakes, preventing the ducks from getting to the minnows that are their main source of food. Necropsies on dozens of birds have confirmed the cause: starvation. "All have empty stomachs. They're half the weight they should be," said Connie Adams, a biologist in the state Department of Environmental Conservation's Buffalo office who has personally seen 950 dead birds.

"This is unprecedented. Biologists who've worked here for 35 years have never seen anything like this," she said. "We've seen a decline in tens of thousands in our weekly waterfowl counts." It's a phenomenon that has been seen elsewhere along the Great Lakes, with news reports of diving ducks and other waterfowl turning up dead by the hundreds along the southern part of Lake Michigan. They've also been found in Lake St. Clair between Lakes Erie and Huron.

... Necropsies and toxicity analyses showed many of the Michigan ducks were subsisting on invasive zebra mussels, which caused the birds to have potentially toxic levels of selenium in their bodies, Mason said. Zebra mussels filter toxins from the water and pass them up the food chain.

Most of the dead ducks seen in the upstate New York are red-breasted mergansers, which breed in northern Canada and Alaska and come south for the winter to the Great Lakes region. In most years, there are periods of freezing and thawing, providing enough breaks in the ice for them to dive for minnows.

Monroe News
15 Mar 2014
Location: Canada

Experimental infection of house sparrows (Passer domesticus) with West Nile virus isolates of Euro-Mediterranean and North American origins

...North American WNV outbreaks are often accompanied by high mortality in wild birds, a feature that is uncommon in Europe. The reason for this difference is unknown, but the intrinsic virulence of the viruses circulating in each continent and/or the susceptibility to the disease of Palearctic as opposed to Nearctic wild bird species could play a role.

To assess this question, experimental inoculations with four lineage 1 WNV strains, three from southern Europe (Italy/2008, Italy/2009 and Spain/2007) and one from North America (NY99) were performed on house sparrows (Passer domesticus), a wild passerine common in both continents. Non-significant differences which ranged from 0% to 25% were observed in mortality for the different WNV strains.

... Consequently, albeit being pathogenic for house sparrows, some Euro-Mediterranean strains had reduced capacity for replication in -and transmission from- this host, as compared to the NY99 strain. If applicable also to other wild bird host species, this relatively reduced transmission capacity of the Euro-Mediterranean strains could explain the lower incidence of this disease in wild birds in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

7th Space
19 Mar 2014

Cited Journal Article

Avian Botulism

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