Did wild birds cause the 2010 deadly West Nile virus outbreak in Greece?
In 2010, 35 people in Greece died from a West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak, with a further 262 laboratory-confirmed human cases. A new article published in BioMedCentral's open access journal Virology Journal examines whether wild or migratory birds could have been responsible for importing and amplifying the deadly virus.
... Studies have shown that humans infected with WNV do not have viremia levels high enough to infect new mosquitoes and hence pass on the virus. Birds, however, do develop viremia levels sufficient to infect mosquitoes, hence serving as amplifying hosts for WNV.
In order to investigate whether wild birds were exposed to WNV prior to the 2010 outbreak in Greece, Charalambos Billinis and his co-authors tested serum and tissue samples from 295 resident and migratory wild birds harvested by hunters prior to and during the outbreak. These samples were collected for the purposes of the authors' participation in an FP7 EU wildlife diseases research project ("WildTech"). All sampling sites were in flying distance for avian species.
Using immunofluorescence assays and virus neutralization tests to analyze samples for the presence of WNV-specific antibodies, the authors found 53 avian samples with WNV neutralizing antibodies. Importantly, 14 positive serum samples were obtained from birds up to 8 months prior to the human outbreak, and genetic determinants of increased virulence were present in these samples.
These results provide evidence to implicate that wild birds could have allowed WNV maintenance and amplification before and during the 2010 virus outbreak. Lead author Billinis commented, "The finding that migratory birds were previously exposed to WNV prior to their arrival in Greece during autumn migration suggests that avian species with similar migration traits could have introduced the virus into Greece."
Reported Wildlife Mortality Events to the USGS National Wildlife Health Center Updated
USGS and a network of partners across the country work on documenting wildlife mortality events in order to provide timely and accurate information on locations, species and causes of death.
This information was updated on November 6, 2012 on the USGS National Wildlife Health Center web page, New and Ongoing Wildlife Mortality Events Nationwide.
Quarterly Mortality Reports are also available from this page. These reports go back to 1995.
06 Nov 2012
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